Mercury in waste, containing the free element and its compounds, and mercury containing-products continue to harm the environment of Bangladesh many years after they have been disposed of. Bangladesh has no speciﬁc guidelines regarding the management of mercury waste, or how to safely manage the uses of either products or equipment that contain mercury or mercury compounds.
The evaluation of mercury emission, therefore, is required to assess new, potential and existing sources, of the mercury emission as a result of the use of mercury and mercury-containing products. The calculations of mercury emission and release into the environment made in this report are based on surveys, guidelines, methods and other sources.
The international demand for the control of mercury emissions arose following the UNEP’s Governing Council’s 22nd session in February 2003. After considering the key ﬁndings of the Global Mercury Assessment Report, the governing Council decided that there was suﬃcient evidence of signiﬁcant global adverse impacts from mercury to warrant further international action to reduce the risks to humans and wildlife from the release of mercury into to the environment. The Governing Council decided that national, regional and global actions should be initiated as soon as possible and urged all countries to adopt goals and take actions, as appropriate, to identify populations at risk and to reduce human-generated releases of mercury.
This commitment to addressing the global adverse impacts of mercury pollution was reinforced by 27 Governments and regional economic integration organizations at the 23rd session of the Governing Council in February 2005. The Governing Council also requested UNEP, in cooperation and consultation with other relevant organizations, to facilitate and conduct technical assistance and capacity building activities to support the eﬀorts of all countries to take action on mercury pollution.
In response to the Governing Council’s request, UNEP has established a mercury program within UNEP Chemicals (UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics), with the immediate objective to encourage all countries to adopt goals and take actions, as appropriate, for the identiﬁcation of mercury-exposed populations, for the minimization of mercury exposure through outreach eﬀorts and for the reduction of anthropogenic mercury releases.
Environment and Social Development Organization-ESDO has also undertaken the project titled “Reduction of demand of mercury in mercury containing products in Bangladesh” in collaboration with UNEP to raise awareness and document mercury use and mercury added products in Bangladesh. This initiative also aims to support Bangladesh government towards ratiﬁcation of Minamata convention.
Inventories of releases of priority hazardous substances constitute an important decision making tool in the process of mitigating environmental impacts from the pollutants in question. Such inventories are often vital in the communication with stakeholders like industry, trade, manufacturers and the public.
The information on mercury pollution contained in this report can be used to determine which sources of mercury should be addressed in Bangladesh for release reduction initiatives. Moreover, baseline inventories and related information can be used to set eﬀective approaches and to draw further attention of the concerned government oﬃcials and stakeholders to take appropriate actions and measures.
This report is mainly focused on the preliminary ﬁeld survey on mercury uses and releases, within Bangladesh territory. These surveys were undertaken during January-May, 2015 throughout Bangladesh by the ESDO team. The team followed the UNEP toolkit format in the design of the survey. Based on the preliminary data, the ﬁndings are as follows:
MERCURY TRADING: IMPORT-EXPORT
- Bangladesh does not produce mercury compounds nor does it engage in mercury mining.
- According to the source of NBR, 2015, around 3.73 MT Mercury is imported each year in Bangladesh.
- During the ﬁeld survey ESDO found that in Bangladesh there are approximately 40 chemical importers and they import “mercury” chemicals mainly from China and India in recent Most of them import and sell two forms of mercury. These are: encapsulated and liquid forms.
- According to the survey it was found that around 58 MT mercury is imported by the importers (both legally and illegally, way through border belt areas).
- It was also found that annual storage of mercury (after supply or sell) for both the forms are 18600 kg or 18.6
- Therefore it has been found that in a year 4 MT mercury is normally sold to the following target customers. They are:
- Dental colleges/chambers/ quacks o Dental assistants
- Beauty product or cosmetics producers
- Jewelry producers (used to re-collect gold from the waste)
- Pharmaceutical companies
- Pesticide/biocide companies
- Laboratories (academic institutions/private sectors)
MERCURY USAGE INVENTORY IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES
- Major consumers of mercury are: the industrial sector (Chlor-alkali, paper and pulp, cement production), the healthcare sector (healthcare instruments, dental amalgam), the energy sector and processes, the electronic sector (electronic device, batteries, CFLs), the cosmetics sector, the jewelry sector and others.
- Calculations based on existing Chlor-alkali plants, those using previous technology for producing chlorine (Cl2), suggest that, in total, 4.49 MT of mercury per year is being released.
- Though 33 cement industries are present in Bangladesh, only 8 have clinker and cement manufacturing facilities. It is estimated that the release of mercury from the 8 cement factories of Bangladesh is 0.14 MT
- Based on calculations of existing Aluminum production companies, total emission of mercury into air is 0.011 MT per
- Based on same calculation it was found that 0.16 MT mercury is being emitted into air during steel production process per year.
Health Care Sector
- ESDO’s baseline survey on mercury containing products in 2015 found that 887472 thermometers are used yearly, and 37.8% of these thermometers break (552007.58). Similarly, yearly use of the number of sphygmomanometers is 305926 and 10% (275333.4) of the total sphygmomanometers
- Standard thermometers contain 0.5g – 2.0g mercury and standard sphygmomanometers contain 80-160g
- It is estimated that, in a year, approximately 0.69 tons of mercury is released into the environment and atmosphere due to thermometer breakage, and that 3.3 tons of mercury is released due to sphygmomanometer breakage.
- During the preparation of dental amalgams, mercury vapor is released, and the amalgams are sources of exposure to mercury contamination. People associated with dental care such as dentists, students and health workers and, in some cases, patients, are exposed to mercury vapor during amalgam preparation through mercury spills, malfunctioning amalgamators, leaky amalgam capsules, trituration placement and condensation of amalgam, polishing and removal of amalgam and vaporization of mercury from other
- Based on ESDO’s baseline survey it is estimated that a person during amalgam dental ﬁllings inhales, on average, between 3 and 17 micrograms of mercury from its vapor into his or her blood each In a year it is 1095 mg to 6205 mg.
- Based on the same ESDO survey, 09 MT to 6.22 MT Mercury vapor is released from mercury amalgam ﬁllings per year from the dental sector in Bangladesh.
Energy Sector & The Processes
- In Bangladesh a major contributor of mercury emissions into to atmosphere in the near future will be coal burning in power plants. The processing of mineral oils, natural gas and fossil fuel extraction are also sources of mercury emission to the
- Based on ESDO’s country situation analysis, it is estimated that the potential mercury emissions from the energy sector (coal, gas, oil reﬁning etc.) is 3058.158
- It is estimated that 11 kg mercury can be emitted into the air during aluminum production and 160 kg mercury emit from the by-product during pig iron and steel production.
- According to the report “Mercury Sources: Products and Hotspots in Bangladesh”, prepared by ESDO in 2012, it is estimated that ﬂuorescent lamps represent approximately 80 percent of the total mercury used in
- Based on ESDOs baseline survey, the total CFL production in Bangladesh is 19,688,097.2 units in the period of 2012-2014 and the mercury released from CFL light bulbs is 0.118 MT.
- During the ﬁeld survey of ESDO in 2015, it was found that each button cell battery may contain 1-2 ppm mercury as impurities in the salted
- Button cell batteries also contain mercury as impurities. According to the survey the total mercury release from button cell batteries in Bangladesh are estimated at 0.0179 MT per
Based on ESDOs baseline survey on 2015;
- Mercury release from jewelry sector was estimated to be 4.1 MT
- Based on calculations, mercury release from measuring devices was 0.85
- According to the report of “Mercury Sources: Products and Hotspots in Bangladesh” prepared by ESDO in 2012, mercury concentration in beauty products ranges from 4653 ppm to 3361
- Mercury release from the chemicals, reagents, solvents use in laboratories is 538.263
Due to lack of information we were unable to obtain information for calculations including primary metal production, mercury in biocides and pesticides, paints, toys and related products, etc.
MERCURY WASTE AND RELEASE INTO ENVIRONMENT
- Mercury has a very long life span, therefore, mercury in waste, sludge, and by products is not destroyed with disposal but rather continues to subsist in
- Based on focus group discussions and surveys, we found that the majority of users of mercury are not aware of the importance of proper disposal of mercury waste or mercury containing compounds. There are also no systems for the large-scale disposal of mercury in Bangladesh. Based on the ESDO baseline survey, it is estimated that 1.12 MT mercury waste is generated and released every year into environment through waste deposition, land ﬁlling and waste water treatment.
- Based on the same study, we found that annual mercury emission from cremation is 0.170 MT.
Bangladesh does not yet have any speciﬁc guidelines regarding the management of mercury release into the environment, or regarding how to safely manage the use of products/equipment that contain mercury, mercury compounds or other speciﬁc chemicals. The existing legislation generally focuses on the overall management of chemicals particularly related to pesticides (for agricultural purposes) and waste management (for the environmental purposes).
The absence of standardization and certiﬁcation of the quality products and the high costs associated with these processes and products are some of the barriers of shifting from mercury to alternative healthcare instruments and dental amalgam. Absence of end-of-life management of discarded CFLs and other devices are also reasons for concern.
Bangladesh has limited strategies in place for identifying a site contaminated with mercury, as well as identifying and assessing the impact of mercury on environment and human health. The reason behind this is the lack of training, ability and capacity for knowledge sharing. Policy makers, regulators and the users of mercury containing goods are generally uninformed about the issue. There is also some lack of media awareness and the common mass is under informed of the toxicity of mercury.
Future recommendations to minimize mercury use and releases can be:
- Promoting alternatives of mercury added products
- Training on alternatives of mercury added products
- Government regulatory, and institutional framework programs
- Plan to minimize and eliminate the uses of mercury and mercury based products and practices